Reasons for Jawbone Loss and Deterioration

The following are the most common causes for jawbone deterioration and loss that may require a bone grafting procedure:

Tooth Extractions:

When an adult tooth is removed and not replaced, jawbone deterioration may occur. Natural teeth are embedded in the jawbone, and stimulate the jawbone through activities such as chewing and biting. When teeth are missing, the alveolar bone, or the portion of the jawbone that anchors the teeth in the mouth, no longer receives the necessary stimulation, and begins to break down, or resorb. The body no longer uses or “needs” the jawbone, so it deteriorates and goes away.

The rate the bone deteriorates, as well as the amount of bone loss that occurs, varies greatly among individuals. Sin embargo, most lost occurs within the first eighteen months following the extraction, and continues throughout life.

Enfermedad periodontal:

Enfermedades periodontales son infecciones continua de las encías que destruyen poco a poco el apoyo de los dientes naturales. La enfermedad periodontal afecta a uno o más de los tejidos periodontales: hueso alveolar, ligamento periodontal, cemento radicular, o encía. Si bien hay muchas enfermedades que afectan a las estructuras de soporte del diente, las lesiones inflamatorias inducidas por placa constituyen la mayoría de los problemas periodontales, y se dividen en dos categorías: gingivitis y periodontitis. Mientras que la gingivitis, la menos grave de las enfermedades, nunca puede progresar a periodontitis, siempre precede a la periodontitis.

Placa dental es la principal causa de la gingivitis en individuos genéticamente susceptibles. Placa es una película incolora pegajosa, compuesto principalmente de partículas de comida y varios tipos de bacterias, que se adhieren a los dientes en y por debajo de la línea de las encías. Placa se forma constantemente sobre los dientes, incluso minutos después de la limpieza. Encuentran en la placa de bacterias producen toxinas o venenos que irritan las encías. Pueden inflamar las encías, rojo, hinchado, y sangran con facilidad. Si esta irritación se prolonga, las encías se separan de los dientes causando bolsillos (espacios) para formar. Si se descuida el cepillado diario y la seda dental, placa también puede endurecerse en un áspero, sustancia porosa conocida como cálculo (o Tártaro). Esto puede ocurrir tanto por encima como por debajo de la línea de las encías.

La periodontitis es afectada por las bacterias que se adhieren a la superficie del diente, junto con una respuesta inmunitaria excesivamente agresiva a estas bacterias. Si la gingivitis progresa a periodontitis, el soporte tejido gingival y el hueso que sostiene los dientes en su lugar se deteriora. La pérdida progresiva de este hueso, la alveolar, puede llevar al aflojamiento y posterior pérdida de los dientes.

Dentures/Bridgework:

Unanchored dentures are placed on top of the gum line, and therefore do not provide any direct stimulation to the underlying alveolar bone. Over time, the lack of stimulation causes the bone to resorb and deteriorate. Because this type of denture relies on the bone to hold them in place, people often experience loosening of their dentures and problems eating and speaking. Eventually, bone loss may become so severe that dentures cannot be held in place even with strong adhesives, and a new set may be required. Proper denture care, repair, and refitting are essential to maintaining oral health.

Some dentures are supported by anchors, which do help adequately stimulate, and therefore preserve bone.

With bridgework, the teeth on either side of the appliance provide sufficient stimulation to the bone, but the portion of the bridge that spans the gap where the teeth are missing receives no direct stimulation. Bone loss can occur in this area.
By completing a bone graft procedure, Dr.. Urling is now able to restore bone function and growth, thereby halting the effects of poor denture care.

Trauma:

When a tooth is knocked out or broken to the extent that no biting surface is left below the gum line, bone stimulation stops, which results in jaw bone loss. Some common forms of tooth and jaw trauma include: teeth knocked out from injury or accident, jaw fractures, or teeth with a history of trauma that may die and lead to bone loss years after the initial trauma.

A bone grafting procedure would be necessary to reverse the effects of bone deterioration, restoring function and promoting new bone growth in traumatized areas.

Misalignment:

Misalignment issues can create a situation in the mouth where some teeth no longer have an opposing tooth structure. The unopposed tooth can over-erupt, causing deterioration of the underlying bone.

Issues such as TMJ problems, normal wear-and-tear, and lack of treatment can also create abnormal physical forces that interfere with the teeth’s ability to grind and chew properly. Over time, bone deterioration can occur where bone is losing stimulation.

Osteomyelitis:

Osteomyelitis is a type of bacterial infection in the bone and bone marrow of the jaw. The infection leads to inflammation, which can cause a reduction of blood supply to the bone. Treatment for osteomyelitis generally requires antibiotics and removal of the affected bone. A bone graft procedure may then be required to restore bone function and growth lost during removal.

Tumors:

Benign facial tumors, though generally non-threateningly, may grow large and require removal of a portion of the jaw. Malignant mouth tumors almost always spread into the jaw, requiring removal of a section of the jaw. In both cases, reconstructive bone grafting is usually required to help restore function to the jaw. Grafting in patients with malignant tumors may be more challenging because treatment of the cancerous tumor generally requires removal of surrounding soft tissue as well.

Developmental Deformities:

Some conditions or syndromes known as birth defects are characterized by missing portions of the teeth, facial bones, jaw or skull. Dr.. Urling may be able to perform a bone graft procedure to restore bone function and growth where it may be absent.

Sinus Deficiencies:

When molars are removed from the upper jaw, air pressure from the air cavity in the maxilla (maxillary sinus), causes resorption of the bone that formerly helped the teeth in place. As a result, the sinuses become enlarged, a condition called hyperneumatized sinus.

This condition usually develops over several years, and may result in insufficient bone for the placement of dental implants. Dr.. Urling can perform a procedure called a “sinus lift” that can treat enlarged sinuses.